d10q.htm




 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 
 
 
FORM 10-Q

 
 
 
(Mark One)
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the quarterly period ended December 31, 2008
 
OR
 
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from              to             
 
Commission File Number 000-29357

 
 
 
Chordiant Software, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 
 
 
Delaware
93-1051328
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
20400 Stevens Creek Boulevard, Suite 400
Cupertino, CA 95014
(Address of Principal Executive Offices including Zip Code)
 
(408) 517-6100
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
 
 
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year if changed since last report)

 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days:    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer  
Accelerated filer  x
 
Non-accelerated filer   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company  
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
 
As of January 16, 2009, there were 30,083,770 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q FOR THE PERIOD ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Page No.
     
Item 1.
3
     
 
3
     
 
4
     
 
5
     
 
6
     
Item 2.
28
     
Item 3.
44
     
Item 4.
44
     
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
 
     
Item 1.
45
     
Item 1A.
45
     
Item 5
56
     
Item 6.
57
     
 
57
     


PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1. Financial Statements (Unaudited).
 
CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
 
     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
 
                 
ASSETS
               
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
53,775
   
$
55,516
 
Accounts receivable, net
   
20,258
     
24,873
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
   
5,888
     
8,168
 
Total current assets
   
79,921
     
88,557
 
Property and equipment, net
   
2,760
     
3,165
 
Goodwill
   
22,608
     
22,608
 
Intangible assets, net
   
1,211
     
1,514
 
Deferred tax assets—non-current
   
4,389
     
6,849
 
Other assets
   
1,926
     
2,007
 
Total assets
 
$
112,815
   
$
124,700
 
                 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
               
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
 
$
4,971
   
$
7,711
 
Accrued expenses
   
8,608
     
9,456
 
Deferred revenue
   
32,952
     
33,503
 
Total current liabilities
   
46,531
     
50,670
 
Deferred revenue—long-term
   
10,184
     
12,831
 
Other liabilities—non-current
   
1,007
     
818
 
Restructuring costs, net of current portion
   
427
     
529
 
Total liabilities
   
58,149
     
64,848
 
                 
Commitments and contingencies (Notes 8, 9 and 10)
               
                 
Stockholders’ equity:
               
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 51,000 shares authorized (500 shares designated as Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock); none issued and outstanding at December 31, 2008 and September 30, 2008
   
     
 
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 300,000 shares authorized; 30,081 and 30,076 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2008 and September 30, 2008, respectively
   
30
     
30
 
Additional paid-in capital
   
282,887
     
281,910
 
Accumulated deficit
   
(228,519
)
   
(225,850
)
Accumulated other comprehensive income
   
268
     
3,762
 
Total stockholders’ equity
   
54,666
     
59,852
 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
$
112,815
   
$
124,700
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
 
   
Three Months Ended December 31,
     
2008
     
2007
 
                 
Revenues:
               
License
 
$
7,941
   
$
8,807
 
Service, including related party items aggregating nil and $64 for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
   
15,436
     
20,327
 
Total revenues
   
23,377
     
29,134
 
Cost of revenues:
               
License
   
98
     
334
 
Service
   
6,686
     
8,478
 
Amortization of intangible assets
   
303
     
303
 
Total cost of revenues
   
7,087
     
9,115
 
Gross profit
   
16,290
     
20,019
 
Operating expenses:
               
Sales and marketing
   
7,780
     
8,903
 
Research and development
   
5,259
     
6,725
 
General and administrative
   
4,402
     
5,003
 
Restructuring expense
   
784
     
 
Total operating expenses
   
18,225
     
20,631
 
Loss from operations
   
(1,935
)
   
(612
)
Interest income, net
   
292
     
835
 
Other income, net
   
685
     
134
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
   
(958
)
   
357
 
Provision for income taxes
   
1,711
     
152
 
Net income (loss)
 
$
(2,669
)
 
$
205
 
                 
Net income (loss) per share:
               
Basic
 
$
(0.09
)
 
$
0.01
 
Diluted
 
$
(0.09
)
 
$
0.01
 
                 
Weighted average shares used in computing net income (loss) per share:
               
Basic
   
30,008
     
33,292
 
Diluted
   
30,008
     
33,864
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
   
Three Months Ended December 31,
     
2008
     
2007
 
                 
Cash flows from operating activities:
               
Net income (loss)
 
$
(2,669
)
 
$
205
 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used for) operating activities:
               
Depreciation and amortization
   
456
     
397
 
Amortization of intangibles and capitalized software
   
363
     
570
 
Non-cash stock-based compensation expense
   
965
     
1,175
 
Provision for doubtful accounts and sales returns
   
202
     
38
 
Accretion of discounts on marketable securities
   
     
(32
)
Non-cash provision for income taxes
   
1,263
     
 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
               
Accounts receivable
   
2,736
     
6,255
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
   
1,203
     
(2,013
)
Other assets
   
(44
)
   
999
 
Accounts payable
   
(2,443
)
   
396
 
Accrued expenses, other liabilities—non-current, and restructuring
   
(256
)
   
23
 
Deferred revenue
   
864
     
(10,664
)
Net cash provided by (used for) operating activities
   
2,640
     
(2,651
)
Cash flows from investing activities:
               
Property and equipment purchases
   
(180
)
   
(723
)
Capitalized product development costs
   
(13
)
   
(66
)
Increase in restricted cash
   
(1
)
   
(2
)
Purchases of marketable securities and short-term investments
   
     
(4,340
)
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities and short-term investments
   
     
5,647
 
Net cash provided by (used for) investing activities
   
(194
)
   
516
 
Cash flows from financing activities:
               
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
   
11
     
569
 
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
   
     
17
 
Net cash provided by financing activities
   
11
     
586
 
Effect of exchange rate changes
   
(4,198
)
   
(226
)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
   
(1,741
)
   
(1,775
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
   
55,516
     
77,987
 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 
$
53,775
   
$
76,212
 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
 
NOTE 1—THE COMPANY
 
Chordiant Software, Inc. or the Company, or Chordiant is an enterprise software vendor that offers software solutions for global business-to-consumer companies that seek to improve the quality of their customer interactions and to reduce costs through increased employee productivity and process efficiencies. The Company concentrates on serving global customers in insurance, healthcare, telecommunications, financial services, retail and other consumer direct industries.
 
NOTE 2—SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
Basis of presentation

The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared by the Company, without audit, pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP, in the United States have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The September 30, 2008 Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP in the United States. However, the Company believes that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. These unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2008, or 2008 Form 10-K, filed with the SEC.

All adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, which in the opinion of management, are necessary to state fairly the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented have been made. The results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year or for any future period.

Reclassifications
 
Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period balances to conform to the current period’s presentation.
 
Principles of consolidation
 
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
 
Use of estimates

The preparation of Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP in the United States requires the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods.

On an on-going basis, the Company evaluates the estimates, including those related to the allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation of stock-based compensation, valuation of goodwill and intangible assets, valuation of deferred tax assets, restructuring expenses, contingencies, Vendor Specific Objective Evidence, or VSOE, of fair value in multiple element arrangements and the estimates associated with the percentage-of-completion method of accounting for certain of our revenue contracts. The Company bases these estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Revenue recognition
 
The Company derives revenue from licensing software and related services, which include assistance in implementation, customization and integration, post-contract customer support, or PCS, training and consulting. All revenue amounts are presented net of sales taxes in the Company’s Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. The amount and timing of revenue is difficult to predict and any shortfall in revenue or delay in recognizing revenue could cause operating results to vary significantly from period to period and could result in operating losses. The accounting rules related to revenue recognition are complex and are affected by the interpretation of the rules and an understanding of industry practices, both of which are subject to change. Consequently, the revenue recognition accounting rules require management to make significant estimates based on judgment.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Software license revenue is recognized in accordance with AICPA’s Statement of Position No. 97-2 “Software Revenue Recognition,” as amended by Statement of Position No. 98-9 “Software Revenue Recognition with Respect to Certain Arrangements” or collectively SOP 97-2.

For arrangements with multiple elements, the Company recognizes revenue for services and PCS based upon the fair value VSOE of the respective elements. The fair value VSOE of the services element is based upon the standard hourly rates charged for the services when such services are sold separately. The fair value VSOE for annual PCS is generally established with the contractual future renewal rates included in the contracts, when the renewal rate is substantive and consistent with the fees when support services are sold separately. When contracts contain multiple elements and fair value VSOE exists for all undelivered elements, the Company accounts for the delivered elements, principally the license portion, based upon the “residual method” as prescribed by SOP 97-2. In multiple element transactions where VSOE is not established for an undelivered element, revenue is recognized upon the establishment of VSOE for that element or when the element is delivered.

At the time a transaction is entered into, the Company assesses whether any services included within the arrangement relate to significant implementation or customization essential to the functionality of our products. For contracts for products that do not involve significant implementation or customization essential to the product functionality, the Company recognizes license revenue when there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, the fee is fixed or determinable, collection of the fee is probable and delivery has occurred as prescribed by SOP 97-2. For contracts that involve significant implementation or customization services essential to the functionality of our products, the license and professional consulting services revenue is recognized using either the percentage-of-completion method or the completed contract method as prescribed by Statement of Position No. 81-1, “Accounting for Performance of Construction-Type and Certain Product-Type Contracts”, or SOP 81-1.

The percentage-of-completion method is applied when the Company has the ability to make reasonably dependable estimates of the total effort required for completion using labor hours incurred as the measure of progress towards completion. The progress toward completion is measured based on the “go-live” date. The “go-live” date is defined as the date the essential product functionality has been delivered or the application enters into a production environment or the point at which no significant additional Chordiant supplied professional service resources are required. Estimates are subject to revisions as the contract progresses to completion and these changes are accounted for as changes in accounting estimates when the information becomes known. Information impacting estimates obtained after the balance sheet date but before the issuance of the financial statements is used to update the estimates. Provisions for estimated contract losses, if any, are recognized in the period in which the loss becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated. When additional licenses are sold related to the original licensing agreement, revenue is recognized upon delivery if the project has reached the go-live date, or if the project has not reached the go-live date, revenue is recognized under the percentage-of-completion method. Revenue from these arrangements is classified as license and service revenue based upon the estimated fair value of each element using the residual method.

The completed contract method is applied when the Company is unable to obtain reasonably dependable estimates of the total effort required for completion. Under the completed contract method, all revenue and related costs of revenue are deferred and recognized upon completion.

For product co-development arrangements relating to software products in development prior to the consummation of the individual arrangements, where the Company retains the intellectual property being developed, and intends to sell the resulting products to other customers, license revenue is deferred until the delivery of the final product, provided all other requirements of SOP 97-2 are met. Expenses associated with these co-development arrangements are accounted for under SFAS No. 86, “Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software to Be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed” and are normally expensed as incurred as they are considered to be research and development costs that do not qualify for capitalization or deferral.

Revenue from subscription or term license agreements, which include software and rights to unspecified future products or maintenance, is recognized ratably over the term of the subscription period. Revenue from subscription or term license agreements, which include software, but exclude rights to unspecified future products and maintenance, is recognized upon delivery of the software if all conditions of recognizing revenue have been met including that the related agreement is non-cancelable, non-refundable and provided on an unsupported basis.

For transactions involving extended payment terms, the Company deems these fees not to be fixed or determinable for revenue recognition purposes and revenue is deferred until the fees become due and payable.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

For arrangements with multiple elements accounted for under SOP 97-2 where the Company determines it can account for the elements separately and the fees are not fixed or determinable due to extended payment terms, revenue is recognized in the following manner. If the undelivered element is PCS, or other services, an amount equal to the estimated value of the services to be rendered prior to the next payment becoming due is allocated to the undelivered services. The residual of the payment is allocated to the delivered elements of the arrangement.

For arrangements with multiple elements accounted for under SOP 81-1 where the Company determines it can account for the elements separately and the fees are not fixed or determinable due to extended payment terms, revenue is recognized in the following manner. Amounts are first allocated to the undelivered elements included in the arrangement, as payments become due or are received, the residual is allocated to the delivered elements.

Revenue for PCS is recognized ratably over the support period which ranges from one to five years.

Training and consulting services revenue is recognized as such services are performed on an hourly or daily basis for time and material contracts. For consulting services arrangements with a fixed fee, revenue is recognized on a percentage-of-completion basis.

For all sales, either a signed license agreement or a binding purchase order with an underlying master license agreement is used as evidence of an arrangement. Sales through third party systems integrators are evidenced by a master agreement governing the relationship together with binding purchase orders or order forms on a transaction-by-transaction basis. Revenues from reseller arrangements are recognized on the “sell-through” method, when the reseller reports to the Company the sale of software products to end-users. The Company’s agreements with customers and resellers do not contain product return rights.

Collectibility is assessed based on a number of factors, including past transaction history with the customer and the credit-worthiness of the customer. Collateral is generally not requested from customers. If it is determined that the collection of a fee is not probable, the revenue is recognized at the time the collection becomes probable, which is generally upon the receipt of cash.

Restricted cash

At December 31, 2008 and September 30, 2008, interest bearing certificates of deposit were classified as restricted cash. These restricted cash balances serve as collateral for letters of credit securing certain lease obligations. These restricted cash balances are classified in Other Assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. See Note 3 for restricted cash balances at each balance sheet date.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and accounts receivable. To date, the Company has invested excess funds in money market accounts, commercial paper, corporate bonds, and certificates-of-deposit. The Company has cash and cash equivalents with various large banks and institutions domestically and internationally. As of December 31, 2008, the Company held no marketable securities.

The Company’s accounts receivable are derived from sales to customers located in North America, Europe, and elsewhere in the world. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of customers’ financial condition and, generally, requires no collateral from customers. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts when deemed necessary. The Company estimates its allowance for doubtful accounts by analyzing accounts receivable for specific risk accounts as well as providing for a general allowance amount based on historical bad debt and billing dispute percentages. The estimate considers historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer credit-worthiness and current economic trends. Based upon current economic conditions, the Company reviewed accounts receivable and has recorded allowances as deemed necessary.

Some of our current or prospective customers have recently been facing financial difficulties. Customers that have accounted for significant revenues in the past may not generate revenues in any future period, causing any failure to obtain new significant customers or additional orders from existing customers to materially affect our operating results. The following table summarizes the revenues from customers that accounted for 10% or more of total revenues:


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

     
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
 
2007
 
 
Citicorp Credit Services, Inc.
   
13
%
   
22
%
 
 
Vodafone Group Services Limited and affiliated companies 
 
25
%
   
*
   
 
International Business Machines (“IBM”)
   
*
     
11
%
 
 
Wellpoint, Inc.
   
*
     
11
%
 
                     
*       Represents less than 10% of total revenues.

As previously announced, the Company has agreed to license certain of its software to IBM’s customers.

At December 31, 2008, CitiCorp Credit Services, Inc., Vodaphone Group Services Limited, and Orange Personal Communications accounted for 19%, 18%, and 10%, of our accounts receivable, respectively. At September 30, 2008, Citicorp Credit Services, Inc., Vodafone Group Services Limited, and IBM accounted for approximately 19%, 18%, and 13% of our accounts receivable, respectively.

Research and Development

Software development costs are expensed as incurred until technological feasibility of the underlying software product is achieved. After technological feasibility is established, software development costs are capitalized until general availability of the product. Capitalized costs are then amortized at the greater of a straight line basis over the estimated product life, or the ratio of current revenue to total projected product revenue.

During fiscal year 2008 and the three months ended December 31, 2008, technological feasibility to port existing products to new platforms was established through the completion of detailed program designs. Costs aggregating $0.4 million associated with these products have been capitalized and included in Other Assets as of December 31, 2008. As the porting of these products are completed, the capitalized costs are being amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated economic life of the product which is 36 months. For the three months ended December 31, 2008, amortization expense, included in cost of revenue for licenses related to these products was less than $0.1 million. As of December 31, 2008, the unamortized expense was approximately $0.4 million.

During the quarter ended September 30, 2006, technological feasibility to port an existing product to a new platform was established through the completion of a detailed program design. Costs aggregating $0.5 million associated with this product were capitalized and included in Other Assets as of September 30, 2007. This product was completed and became available for general release in July 2007, accordingly, the capitalized costs are being amortized using the straight-line method over the remaining estimated economic life of the product which is 36 months. For the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, amortization expense, included in cost of revenue for license related to this product was less than $0.1 million for both periods. As of December 31, 2008, the unamortized expense was $0.3 million.

Income Taxes
  
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach, which requires the recognition of taxes payable or refundable for the current period and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. The measurement of current and deferred tax liabilities and assets is based on provisions of the enacted tax law; the effects of future changes in tax laws or rates are not anticipated. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by the amount of any tax benefits that, based on available evidence, are not expected to be realized.

Effective October 1, 2007, the Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Interpretation, No. 48 “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes — an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109” or FIN 48. FIN 48 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement guidance for the financial statement reporting of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a company’s income tax return. The application of FIN 48 is explained in Note 11 to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Net income (loss) per share

The Company computes net income (loss) per share in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standard, No. 128, “Earnings per Share”, or SFAS 128. Under the provisions of SFAS 128, basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) for the period by the weighted average number of common and potentially dilutive shares outstanding during the period. Potentially dilutive shares, which consist of incremental shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options and unvested restricted stock (using the treasury stock method), are included in the calculation of diluted net income per share, in periods in which net income is reported, to the extent such shares are dilutive. In accordance with SFAS 123(R), unvested performance based restricted stock units or RSUs are not included in the computation of earnings per share as they are considered contingently issuable shares. The calculation of diluted net loss per share excludes potential common shares as their effect is anti-dilutive for the three months ended December 31, 2008.

The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share for the periods indicated (in thousands, except for per share data):

   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
                   
 
Net income (loss) available to common stockholders
$
(2,669
)
 
$
205
   
 
Denominator:
               
 
Weighted average common stock outstanding
 
30,008
     
33,292
   
 
Denominator for basic calculations
 
30,008
     
33,292
   
                   
 
Effect of dilutive potential common shares
 
(*)
   
572
   
 
Denominator for diluted calculations
 
30,008
     
33,864
   
                   
 
Net income (loss) per share—basic
$
(0.09
)
 
$
0.01
   
 
Net income (loss) per share—diluted
$
(0.09
)
 
$
0.01
   
(*) – Dilutive potential common shares are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share.

The following table sets forth the potential total common shares that are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share as their effect is anti-dilutive as of the dates indicated (in thousands):

     
December 31,
2008
           
                   
 
Employee stock options
 
4,212
           
 
Restricted stock awards (RSAs)
 
71
           
 
Restricted stock units
 
520
           
     
4,803
           



CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In November 2008, the FASB ratified Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) Issue No. 08-6, “Equity Method Investment Accounting Considerations” or EITF 08-6. EITF 08-6 clarifies the accounting for certain transactions and impairment considerations involving equity method investments. EITF 08-6 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, with early adoption prohibited. The Company does not currently have any investments that are accounted for under the equity method and therefore EITF 08-6 will not have a significant impact on the determination of our financial results.

In November 2008, the FASB ratified EITF Issue No. 08-7, “Accounting for Defensive Intangible Assets” or EITF 08-7. EITF 08-7 clarifies the accounting for certain separately identifiable intangible assets which an acquirer does not intend to actively use but intends to hold to prevent its competitors from obtaining access to them. EITF 08-7 requires an acquirer in a business combination to account for a defensive intangible asset as a separate unit of accounting which should be amortized to expense over the period the asset diminishes in value. EITF 08-7 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, with early adoption prohibited.  The Company has evaluated the new EITF and has determined that it will not have a significant impact on the determination or reporting of our financial results.

In October, 2008, the FASB issued FASB Staff Position (FSP) FAS 157-3,Determining the Fair Value of a Financial Asset When the Market for That Asset Is Not Active” or FSP 157-3. FSP 157-3 clarifies the application of FAS 157 and provides an example to illustrate key considerations in determining the fair value of a financial asset when the market for that financial asset is not active. FSP 157-3 is effective upon issuance, including prior periods for which financial statements have not been issued. Revisions resulting from a change in the valuation technique or its application should be accounted for as a change in accounting estimate following the guidance in FAS Statement No. 154, “Accounting Changes and Error Corrections” or FAS 154. However, the disclosure provisions in FAS 154 for a change in accounting estimate are not required for revisions resulting from a change in valuation technique or its application. The Company has evaluated the new FSP and has determined that it will not have a significant impact on the determination or reporting of our financial results

NOTE 3—FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND FAIR VALUE

The Company adopted the provisions of SFAS 157 effective October 1, 2008. Under this standard, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

The Company has investments that are valued in accordance with the provisions of SFAS 157. SFAS 157 establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs as follows:

 
Level 1 – Valuations based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets that the Company has the ability to access.
 
Level 2 – Valuations based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.
 
Level 3 – Valuations based on inputs that are unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.

The following table represents information about the Company’s investments measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands).

   
Fair value of investments as of December 31, 2008
 
   
Total
     
Quoted Prices
In Active
Markets for
Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
     
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
     
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs
(Level 3)
 
 
Money Market Funds
$
25,149
   
$
25,149
   
$
   
$
 
                                 


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

NOTE 4—BALANCE SHEET COMPONENTS

Accounts receivable, net
 
Accounts receivable, net, consists of the following (in thousands):

     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
 
Accounts receivable, net:
               
 
Accounts receivable
$
21,077
   
$
25,502
   
 
Less: allowance for doubtful accounts
 
(819
)
   
(629
)
 
   
$
20,258
   
$
24,873
   

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):

     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets:
               
 
Prepaid commissions and royalties
$
1,296
   
$
2,171
   
 
Deferred tax assets
 
2,308
     
3,102
   
 
Other prepaid expenses and current assets
 
2,284
     
2,895
   
   
$
5,888
   
$
8,168
   

Property and equipment, net

Property and equipment, net, consists of the following (in thousands):

     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
 
Property and equipment, net:
               
 
Computer hardware (useful lives of 3 years)
$
4,786
   
$
4,744
   
 
Purchased internal-use software (useful lives of 3 years)
 
3,325
     
3,323
   
 
Furniture and equipment (useful lives of 3 to 7 years)
 
718
     
749
   
 
Leasehold improvements (shorter of 7 years or the term of the lease)
 
2,688
     
2,811
   
     
11,517
     
11,627
   
 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization
 
(8,757
)
   
(8,462
)
 
   
$
2,760
   
$
3,165
   

Intangible assets, net

Intangible assets, net, consist of the following (in thousands):

   
December 31, 2008
 
September 30, 2008
     
Gross
Carrying
Amount
     
Accumulated
Amortization
     
Net
Carrying
Amount
     
Gross
Carrying
Amount
     
Accumulated
Amortization
     
Net
Carrying
Amount
 
Intangible assets:
                                               
Developed technologies
 
$
6,904
   
$
(5,989
)
 
$
915
   
$
6,904
   
$
(5,765
)
 
$
1,139
 
Customer list and trade-names
   
2,731
     
(2,435
)
   
296
     
2,731
     
(2,356
)
   
375
 
   
$
9,635
   
$
(8,424
)
 
$
1,211
   
$
9,635
   
$
(8,121
)
 
$
1,514
 


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

All of the Company’s acquired intangible assets are subject to amortization and are carried at cost less accumulated amortization. Amortization is computed on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives which are as follows:  Developed technologies—one and one half to five years; trade-names—three to five years; customer list—three to five years. Aggregate amortization expense for intangible assets totaled $0.3 million for each of the three month periods ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The Company expects amortization expense on acquired intangible assets to be $0.9 million for the remainder of fiscal year 2009 and $0.3 million in fiscal year 2010.

Other assets

Other assets consist of the following (in thousands):

     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
 
Other assets:
               
 
Long-term restricted cash
$
88
   
$
89
   
 
Other assets
 
1,838
     
1,918
   
   
$
1,926
   
$
2,007
   

Accrued expenses

Accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):  

     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
 
Accrued expenses:
               
 
Accrued payroll, payroll taxes and related expenses
$
4,373
   
$
5,088
   
 
Accrued restructuring expenses, current portion (Note 5)
 
435
     
538
   
 
Accrued third party consulting fees
 
939
     
1,264
   
 
Accrued income, sales and other taxes
 
1,524
     
1,678
   
 
Other accrued liabilities
 
1,337
     
888
   
   
$
8,608
   
$
9,456
   

Deferred Revenue

Deferred revenue consists of the following (in thousands):

     
December 31,
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
 
Deferred revenue:
               
 
License
$
9,679
   
$
12,465
   
 
Support and maintenance
 
32,622
     
32,908
   
 
Other
 
835
     
961
   
     
43,136
     
46,334
   
 
Less: current portion
 
(32,952
)
   
(33,503
)
 
 
Long-term deferred revenue
$
10,184
   
$
12,831
   


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

NOTE 5—RESTRUCTURING

Restructuring Costs
 
Through December 31, 2008, the Company approved certain restructuring plans to, among other things, reduce its workforce, terminate contracts and consolidate facilities. Restructuring and asset impairment expenses have been recorded to align the Company’s cost structure with changing market conditions and to create a more efficient organization. The Company’s restructuring expenses have been comprised primarily of: (i) severance and termination benefit costs related to the reduction of our workforce; (ii) lease termination costs and costs associated with permanently vacating certain facilities, and (iii) contract termination costs. The Company accounted for each of these costs in accordance with SFAS No. 146, “Accounting for Costs Associated with Exit or Disposal Activities” or SFAS 146 or previous guidance under Emerging Issues Task Force 94-3 “Liabilities Recognition for Certain Employee Termination Benefits and Other Costs to Exit an Activity (including Certain Costs Incurred in a Restructuring)”, or EITF 94-3.
 
Retroactive application of SFAS 146 to periods prior to January 1, 2003, was prohibited; accordingly, the accrual relating to facilities vacated prior to the effective date of SFAS 146 continues to be accounted for in accordance with the guidance of EITF 94-3. Accruals for facilities that were restructured prior to 2003 do not reflect any adjustments relating to the estimated net present value of cash flows associated with the facilities.
 
For each of the periods presented herein, restructuring expenses consist solely of:

 
Severance and Termination Benefits—These costs represent severance and payroll taxes related to restructuring plans.

 
Excess Facilities Costs—These costs represent future minimum lease payments related to excess and abandoned office space under leases, and the disposal of property and equipment including facility leasehold improvements, net of estimated sublease income.

 
Termination Costs—These costs represent contract termination costs related to the restructuring plan.

As of December 31, 2008, the total restructuring accrual consisted of the following (in thousands):

     
Current
     
Non-Current
     
Total
   
                           
 
Excess facilities
$
435
   
$
427
   
$
862
   
 
Total
$
435
   
$
427
   
$
862
   

As of December 31, 2008 and September 30, 2008, $0.4 million and $0.5 million, respectively, of the restructuring reserve are included in the Accrued Expenses line item on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The allocation between current portion and long term portion is based on the current lease agreements or the anticipated settlement dates.

As of December 31, 2008, all severance and termination benefits and contract termination costs have been paid.

The Company expects to pay the excess facilities amounts related to the restructured or vacated leased office space as follows (in thousands):

 
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 
         
Total Net Future
Minimum Lease
Payments
           
 
2009 (nine months remaining)
       
334
           
 
2010
         
409
           
 
2011
         
119
           
 
Total
       
$
862
           

Included in the future minimum lease payments schedule above is an offset of $0.6 million of contractually committed sublease rental income. In the event that the sub-lessee was to default on their lease commitment to the Company, an adjustment to expense would be required if we were unable to find a replacement tenant on a timely basis.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Fiscal Year 2009 Restructuring

In October 2008, the Company initiated a restructuring plan, the 2009 Restructuring, intended to align its resources and cost structure with expected future revenues. The 2009 Restructuring plan includes reductions in headcount and third party consultants across all functional areas in both North America and Europe. The 2009 Restructuring plan includes a reduction of approximately 13% of the Company’s permanent workforce. A significant portion of the positions eliminated were in North America.

As a result of the cost-cutting measures, the Company recorded a pre-tax cash restructuring charge in the first quarter of fiscal year 2009, of approximately $0.9 million, including $ 0.8 million for severance costs and $0.1 million for other contract termination costs. As of December 31, 2008, all payments have been made.

     
Severance
and Benefits
     
Contract
Termination
Costs
     
Total
   
                           
 
Provision
$
758
   
$
130
   
$
888
   
 
Cash paid
 
(758
)
   
(130
)
   
(888
)
 
 
Reserve balance as of December 31, 2008
$
   
$
   
$
   

Fiscal Year 2005 Restructuring

In May 2005, the Company appointed a task force to improve profitability and control expenses. The goal of the task force was to create a better alignment of functions within the Company, to make full utilization of the Company’s India development center, to develop a closer relationship between the Company’s field operations and customers, to review the sales and implementation models, as well adjust as the organization model to flatten management levels, to review the Company’s product line, and to enhance the Company’s business model for profitability and operating leverage. This work resulted in an approximate 10% reduction in the Company’s workforce, or 2005 Restructuring, and in July 2005 affected employees were notified. As part of the 2005 Restructuring, the Company incurred a one-time restructuring charge of $1.1 million in the fourth quarter ended September 30, 2005 for severance and termination benefits.

During the quarter ended March 31, 2007, the Company incurred an additional charge of less than $0.1 million for additional severance expense for an employee located in France. During the quarter ended December 31, 2008, the Company reversed the charge as the Company was not required to pay the severance expense to the employee.

The following table summarizes the activity related to the 2005 Restructuring (in thousands):

     
Severance
and Termination
Benefits
   
 
Reserve balance as of September 30, 2008
$
123
   
 
Provision adjustment
 
(104
)
 
 
Non-cash
 
(19
)
 
 
Cash paid
 
   
 
Reserve balance as of December 31, 2008
$
   



CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Prior Restructurings

During fiscal year 2002, based upon the Company’s continued evaluation of economic conditions in the information technology industry and our expectations regarding revenue levels, the Company restructured several areas so as to reduce expenses and improve revenue per employee, or 2002 Restructuring. As part of 2002 Restructuring, the Company recorded a total workforce reduction expense relating to severance and termination benefits of approximately $2.0 million and $3.8 million for years ended December 31, 2003 and 2002, respectively. In addition to these costs, the Company accrued lease costs related to excess facilities of $0.2 million and $2.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2003 and 2002, respectively, pertaining to the consolidation of excess facilities relating to lease terminations and non-cancelable lease costs. This expense is net of estimated sublease income based on current comparable rates for leases in the respective markets.

During the year ended September 30, 2007, the Company entered into a new sublease for the last remaining facility lease associated with the 2002 Restructuring. As a result of this sublease, rental income was lower than previously estimated as part of the restructure facility reserve, and the Company recorded an additional $0.4 million of restructuring expense during the year ended September 30, 2007. The sublease term is through the entire remaining term of the Company’s lease obligation for the facility.

The following table summarizes the activity related to the 2002 Restructuring (in thousands):
 
     
Excess Facilities
   
 
Reserve balance as of September 30, 2008
$
943
   
 
Non-cash
 
   
 
Cash paid
 
(81
)
 
 
Reserve balance as of December 31, 2008
$
862
   

NOTE 6—COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

The components of comprehensive income (loss) are as follows (in thousands):

   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
                   
 
Net income (loss)
$
(2,669
)
 
$
205
   
                   
 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
               
 
Change in foreign currency translation
 
(3,494
)
   
29
   
 
Net change in unrealized gain from investments
 
     
5
   
 
Comprehensive income (loss)
$
(6,163
)
 
$
239
   

NOTE 7—RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

Charles E. Hoffman, a director of the Company, is the former President and Chief Executive Officer of Covad Communications Group, Inc. (“Covad”), a customer of ours. Revenue from Covad was zero and less than $0.1 million for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

David A. Weymouth is a former director of the Company. Through June 2005, Mr. Weymouth was the Corporate Responsibility Director of Barclay’s Group, a customer of ours. Mr. Weymouth terminated his relationship with Barclay’s Group and became an associate with Deloitte & Touche LLP, a prior provider of tax services to the Company. Mr. Weymouth resigned as a member of the Board of Directors of the Company in February 2008.

In February 2008, Dan Gaudreau became a director of the Company. Mr. Gaudreau is the Chief Financial Officer of Actuate Corporation, a provider of licensed technology to the Company. The Company paid royalties to Actuate Corporation of less than $0.1 million and zero for the three months ended December 31, 2007 and 2008, respectively.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

NOTE 8—BORROWINGS

Revolving Line of Credit

 
The Company’s revolving line of credit with Comerica Bank expires on June 7, 2010. The terms of the agreement include a $5.0 million line of credit, available on a non-formula basis, and requires the Company to maintain (i) at least a $5.0 million cash balance in Comerica Bank accounts, (ii) a minimum quick ratio of 2 to 1, (iii) a liquidity ratio of at least 1 to 1 at all times, and (iv) subordinate any debt issuances subsequent to the effective date of the agreement, and certain other covenants. All assets of the Company have been pledged as collateral on the credit facility.

The revolving line of credit contains a provision for a sub-limit of up to $5.0 million for issuances of standby commercial letters of credit. As of December 31, 2008, the Company had utilized $0.4 million of the standby commercial letters of credit limit which serves as collateral for computer equipment leases for Ness (see Note 9) of approximately $0.2 million and collateral for our Brighton facility of approximately $0.2 million. The revolving line of credit also contains a provision for a sub-limit of up to $3.0 million for issuances of foreign exchange forward contracts. As of December 31, 2008, the Company had not entered into any foreign exchange forward contracts. Pursuant to the March 2006 amended agreement, the Company is required to secure the standby commercial letters of credit and foreign exchange forward contracts through June 7, 2010. If these have not been secured to Comerica Bank’s satisfaction, the Company’s cash and cash equivalent balances held by Comerica Bank automatically secure such obligations to the extent of the then continuing or outstanding and undrawn letters of credit or foreign exchange contracts.

Borrowings under the revolving line of credit bear interest at the lending bank’s prime rate. Except for the standby commercial letters of credit, as of December 31, 2008, there were no outstanding balances on the revolving line of credit.

NOTE 9—COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

Lease Commitments

The Company leases its facilities and certain equipment under non-cancelable operating leases that expire on various dates through 2013. Rent expense is recognized on a straight line basis over the lease term.

Future minimum lease payments as of December 31, 2008 are as follows (in thousands):

     
Operating
Leases
     
Operating
Sublease
Income
     
Net
Operating
Leases
   
 
Fiscal year ended September 30:
                       
 
2009 (remaining nine months)
$
2,306
   
$
(190
 
$
2,116
   
 
2010
 
3,107
     
(293
)
   
2,814
   
 
2011
 
2,551
     
(86
)
   
2,465
   
 
2012
 
1,818
     
     
1,818
   
 
2013
 
1,660
     
     
1,660
   
 
Thereafter
 
261
     
     
261
   
 
Total minimum payments
$
11,703
   
$
(569
 
$
11,134
   

Operating lease payments in the table above include approximately $1.4 million for our Boston, Massachusetts facility operating lease commitment that is included in Restructuring Expense. As of December 31, 2008, the Company has $0.6 million in sublease income contractually committed for future periods relating to this facility. See Note 5 for further discussions.

The office lease for our Cupertino headquarters was scheduled to expire on December 31, 2008. In July 2008, the Company renewed the lease for a five year period with an option to renew for an additional five years. The table above includes our lease commitment for these facilities.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Asset Retirement Obligations

As required by SFAS No.143 “Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations”, or SFAS 143, and Interpretation No. 47, “Accounting for Conditional Asset Retirement Obligations, an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 143”, or FIN 47, the Company recorded an Asset Retirement Obligation (ARO) of approximately $0.3 million and a corresponding increase in leasehold improvements in the fiscal year 2007. SFAS 143 and FIN 47 requires the recognition of a liability for the fair value of a legally required conditional asset retirement obligation when incurred, if the liability’s fair value can be reasonability estimated. The fair value of the liability is added to the carrying amount of the associated asset and this additional carrying amount is amortized over the life of the asset.

The Company’s asset retirement obligations are associated with commitments to return property subject to operating leases to original condition upon lease termination. As of December 31, 2008, the Company estimated that gross expected cash flows of approximately $0.3 million will be required to fulfill these obligations.

Asset retirement obligation payments as of December 31, 2008 are estimated as follows (in thousands):

             
Payments
           
 
Fiscal year ended September 30:
                       
 
2009 (remaining nine months)
       
$
           
 
2010
         
           
 
2011
         
142
           
 
2012
         
162
           
 
Total
       
$
304
           

Other Obligations

The Company entered into an agreement with Ness Technologies Inc., Ness USA, Inc. (formerly Ness Global Services, Inc.) and Ness Technologies India, Ltd. (collectively, “Ness”), effective December 15, 2003, pursuant to which Ness provides the Company’s customers with technical product support through a worldwide help desk facility, a sustaining engineering function that serves as the interface between technical product support and internal engineering organization, product testing services and product development services (collectively, the “Services”). The agreement had an initial term of three years and was extended for two additional one year terms. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company pays for services rendered on a monthly fee basis, including the requirement to reimburse Ness for approved out-of-pocket expenses. The agreement may be terminated for convenience by the Company, subject to the payment of a termination fee. From 2004 to 2008, the Company further expanded its agreement with Ness whereby Ness is providing certain additional technical and consulting services. In January 2009, the Company extended its agreement with Ness to provide technical and consulting services, however if the Company terminates the agreement prior to December 31, 2009, it may be required to pay a termination fee no greater than $0.5 million. In addition to service agreements, the Company has also guaranteed certain equipment lease obligations of Ness (see Note 8). Ness may procure equipment to be used in performance of the Services, either through leasing arrangements or direct cash purchases, for which the Company is obligated under the agreement to reimburse them. In connection with the procurement of equipment, Ness has entered into a 36 month equipment lease agreement with IBM India and, in connection with the lease agreement the Company has an outstanding standby letter of credit in the amount of $0.2 million in guarantee of Ness’ financial commitments under the lease. Over the term of the lease, the Company’s obligation to reimburse Ness is approximately equal to the amount of the guarantee.

Indemnification

As permitted under Delaware law, the Company enters into indemnification agreements pursuant to which the Company is obligated to indemnify certain of its officers, directors or employees for certain events or occurrences while the officer, director or employee is, or was, serving at the Company’s request in such capacity. The Company’s Bylaws similarly provide for indemnification of its officers, directors and employees under certain circumstances to the maximum extent permitted under Delaware law. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements and arrangements is unlimited; however, the Company has a Director and Officer insurance policy that limits the Company’s exposure and may enable the Company to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. As a result of insurance policy coverage, the Company


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

believes the estimated fair value of these indemnification agreements and arrangements is minimal. Accordingly, the Company has no liabilities recorded for these agreements or arrangements as of December 31, 2008.

The Company enters into standard agreements with indemnification provisions in its ordinary course of business. Pursuant to these agreements, the Company agrees to indemnify, defend, hold harmless, and to reimburse the indemnified party for losses suffered or incurred by the indemnified party, generally the Company’s business partners or customers, in connection with any patent, copyright or other intellectual property infringement claim by any third party with respect to the Company’s products. The term of these agreements is generally perpetual after execution of the agreement. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these agreements is unlimited. The Company has not incurred significant costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these agreements. The Company believes the estimated fair value of these agreements is minimal.  Accordingly, the Company has no liabilities recorded for these agreements as of December 31, 2008.

The Company enters into arrangements with our business partners whereby the business partners agree to provide services as subcontractors for the Company’s implementations. The Company may, at its discretion and in the ordinary course of business, subcontract the performance of any of these services. Accordingly, the Company enters into standard agreements with its customers, whereby the Company indemnifies them for other acts, such as personal property damage, by its subcontractors. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these agreements is unlimited; however, the Company has general and umbrella insurance policies that may enable the Company to recover a portion of any amounts paid. The Company has not incurred significant costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these agreements. As a result, the Company believes the estimated fair value of these agreements is minimal. Accordingly, the Company has no liabilities recorded for these agreements as of December 31, 2008.

When, as part of an acquisition, the Company acquires all of the stock or all of the assets and liabilities of a company, the Company may assume the liability for certain events or occurrences that took place prior to the date of acquisition. The maximum potential amount of future payments, if any, the Company could be required to make for such obligations is undeterminable at this time. Accordingly, the Company has no amounts recorded for these contingent liabilities as of December 31, 2008.

The Company warrants that its software products will perform in all material respects in accordance with standard published specifications and documentation in effect at the time of delivery of the licensed products to the customer for a specified period of time. Additionally, the Company warrants that maintenance and consulting services will be performed consistent with generally accepted industry standards. If necessary, the Company would provide for the estimated cost of product and service warranties based on specific warranty claims and claim history, however, the Company has not incurred significant expense under product or services warranties to date. As a result, the Company believes the estimated fair value on these warranties is minimal. Accordingly, the Company has no amounts recorded for these contingent liabilities as of December 31, 2008.

NOTE 10—LITIGATION

IPO Laddering

Beginning in July 2001, the Company and certain of its officers and directors, or Individuals, were named as defendants in a series of class action stockholder complaints filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, now consolidated under the caption “In re Chordiant Software, Inc. Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, Case No. 01-CV-6222”. In the amended complaint, filed in April 2002, the plaintiffs allege that the Company, the Individuals, and the underwriters of the Company’s initial public offering, or IPO, violated section 11 of the Securities Act of 1933 and section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 based on allegations that the Company’s registration statement and prospectus failed to disclose material facts regarding the compensation to be received by, and the stock allocation practices of, the Company’s IPO underwriters. The complaint also contains claims against the Individuals for control person liability under Securities Act section 15 and Exchange Act section 20. The plaintiffs seek unspecified monetary damages and other relief. Similar complaints were filed in the same court against hundreds of other public companies, or Issuers, that conducted IPO’s of their common stock in the late 1990’s or in the year 2000 (collectively, the “IPO Lawsuits”).



CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

In August 2001, all of the IPO Lawsuits were consolidated for pretrial purposes before United States Judge Shira Scheindlin of the Southern District of New York. In July 2002, the Company joined in a global motion to dismiss the IPO Lawsuits filed by all of the Issuers (among others). In October 2002, the Court entered an order dismissing the Individuals from the IPO Lawsuits without prejudice, pursuant to an agreement tolling the statute of limitations with respect to the Individuals. In February 2003, the court issued a decision denying the motion to dismiss against Chordiant and many of the other Issuers.

In June 2003, Issuers and plaintiffs reached a tentative settlement agreement that would, among other things, result in the dismissal with prejudice of all claims against the Issuers and Individuals in the IPO Lawsuits, and the assignment to plaintiffs of certain potential claims that the Issuers may have against the underwriters. The tentative settlement also provides that, in the event that plaintiffs ultimately recover less than a guaranteed sum of $1 billion from the IPO underwriters, plaintiffs would be entitled to payment by each participating Issuer’s insurer of a pro rata share of any shortfall in the plaintiffs’ guaranteed recovery. In September 2003, in connection with the possible settlement, those Individuals who had entered tolling agreements with plaintiffs (described above) agreed to extend those agreements so that they would not expire prior to any settlement being finalized. In June 2004, Chordiant and almost all of the other Issuers entered into a formal settlement agreement with the plaintiffs. On February 15, 2005, the Court issued a decision certifying a class action for settlement purposes, and granting preliminary approval of the settlement subject to modification of certain bar orders contemplated by the settlement. On August 31, 2005, the Court reaffirmed class certification and preliminary approval of the modified settlement in a comprehensive Order, and directed that Notice of the settlement be published and mailed to class members beginning November 15, 2005. On February 24, 2006, the Court dismissed litigation filed against certain underwriters in connection with the claims to be assigned to the plaintiffs under the settlement. On April 24, 2006, the Court held a Final Fairness Hearing to determine whether to grant final approval of the settlement. On December 5, 2006, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the lower Court's earlier decision certifying as class actions the six IPO Lawsuits designated as "focus cases." Thereafter, the District Court ordered a stay of all proceedings in all of the IPO Cases pending the outcome of plaintiffs’ petition to the Second Circuit for rehearing en banc. On April 6, 2007, the Second Circuit denied plaintiffs’ rehearing petition, but clarified that the plaintiffs may seek to certify a more limited class in the district court. Accordingly, the settlement will not be finally approved. Plaintiffs filed amended complaints in six “focus cases” on or about August 14, 2007. The Company is not a focus case. In September 2007, the Company's named officers and directors again extended the tolling agreement with plaintiffs. On or about September 27, 2007, plaintiffs moved to certify the classes alleged in the focus cases and to appoint class representatives and class counsel in those cases. The focus case issuers filed motions to dismiss the claims against them on or about November 9, 2007 and an opposition to plaintiffs' motion for class certification on December 21, 2007. On March 16, 2008, the court denied the motions to dismiss in the focus cases. On October 2, 2008, the plaintiffs withdrew their class certification motion.  A deadline for the focus case defendants to answer the amended complaints has not been set. This action may divert the efforts and attention of our management and, if determined adversely to us, could have a material impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

Derivative Class Action

On August 1, 2006, a stockholder derivative complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California by Jesse Brown under the caption Brown v. Kelly, et al. Case No. C06-04671 JW (N.D. Cal.). On September 13, 2006, a second stockholder derivative complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California by Louis Suba under the caption Suba v. Kelly et al., Case No. C06-05603 JW (N.D. Cal.). Both complaints were brought purportedly on behalf of the Company against certain current and former officers and directors. On November 27, 2006, the court entered an order consolidating these actions and requiring the plaintiffs to file a consolidated complaint. The consolidated complaint was filed on January 11, 2007. The consolidated complaint alleged, among other things, that the named officers and directors: (a) breached their fiduciary duties as they colluded with each other to backdate stock options, (b) violated section 10(b), 14(a) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder through their alleged actions, and (c) were unjustly enriched by their receipt and retention of such stock options. On June 30, 2008, the parties signed a Stipulation of Compromise and Settlement ("the Settlement"), which was subject to court approval. The Settlement received final court approval on October 22, 2008. The Company's cash contribution toward the Settlement was not material to the financial statements.



CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Yue vs. Chordiant Software, Inc.

On January 2, 2008, the Company and certain of our officers and one other employee were named in a complaint filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California by Dongxiao Yue under the caption Dongxiao Yue v. Chordiant Software, Inc. et al. Case No. CV 08-0019 (N.D. Cal.). The complaint alleged that the Company’s Marketing Director software product infringed copyrights in certain software referred to as the “PowerRPC software,” copyrights that had been owned by Netbula LLC and assigned to Mr. Yue, the sole employee and owner of Netbula. The alleged infringement included (a) distributing more copies of the PowerRPC software than had originally been authorized in a run time license Netbula granted to Chordiant Software, Intl., (b) infringement of a software developer kit (“SDK”) by making copies of the SDK in excess of those that had been licensed by Netbula, (c) making unauthorized derivative works of the SDK, (d) unauthorized distribution of PowerRPC for products operating on the Windows Vista platform, and (e) unauthorized distribution of PowerRPC for server based products. The plaintiff sought monetary damages, disgorgement of profits, and injunctive relief according to proof. On February 5, 2008, the Company and its officers and employees filed a motion to dismiss the complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief could be granted, and as to lack of personal jurisdiction as to one employee. On July 23, 2008, the Court issued an order that (1) denied Plaintiff's motion to disqualify counsel; (2) granted one employee’s motion to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, with prejudice, and (3) granted the Company’s motion to dismiss, ruling that Plaintiff’s company, Netbula LLC, is the real party in interest and must appear through counsel. The Court ruled that Netbula LLC could file an amended complaint within 45 days and join Mr. Yue as an individual Plaintiff at that time.

On September 9, 2008, Plaintiffs Dongxiao Yue and Plaintiff Netbula LLC filed a First Amended Complaint asserting four causes of action relating to the Company’s alleged unauthorized use and distribution of Plaintiffs’ PowerRPC software: claims for copyright infringement, unfair competition, and “accession and confusion of property” against the Company, and a claim for vicarious copyright infringement against the Company’s Chief Executive Offer and its former Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary.

On September 20, 2008, the parties filed a stipulation allowing Plaintiffs to file a Second Amended Complaint asserting the two causes of action for copyright infringement and vicarious copyright infringement, but not including the unfair competition and accession and confusion claims.  The Second Amended Complaint seeks monetary damages, disgorgement of profits, and injunctive relief according to proof.  On November 10, 2008, the Company’s Chief Executive Offer and its former Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary filed a motion to dismiss on grounds that the Plaintiffs failed to state a claim as to them, and this motion is to be heard on February 23, 2009.  Also on November 10, 2008, the Company answered the complaint and asserted various affirmative defenses, including that the Plaintiffs’ claims are barred by the existence of an express or implied license from the Plaintiffs.  The Court has allowed discovery to proceed on this license-based defense and set April 9, 2009 for a hearing on the Company’s anticipated motion for summary judgment on this defense. This action may divert the efforts and attention of our management and, if determined adversely to us, could have a material impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

The Company, from time to time, is also subject to various other claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. The ultimate disposition of these various other claims and legal actions is not expected to have a material effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. However, litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties.

NOTE 11—INCOME TAXES

Effective October 1, 2007, the Company adopted FIN No. 48 “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes — an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109”. FIN 48 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement guidance for the financial statement reporting of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a company’s income tax return. FIN 48 also provides guidance related to recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition matters related to uncertain tax positions. FIN 48 utilizes a two-step approach for evaluating uncertain tax positions accounted for in accordance with SFAS 109. Step one, recognition, requires a company to determine if the weight of available evidence indicates that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon audit, including the resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. Step two, measurement, is based on the largest amount of benefit which is more likely than not to be realized on ultimate settlement. The cumulative effect of adopting FIN 48, if any, is recorded as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of the adoption date.

The net income tax assets recognized under FIN 48 did not materially differ from the net assets recognized before adoption, and, therefore, the Company did not record an adjustment to retained earnings related to the adoption of FIN 48. At the adoption date of October 1, 2007, the Company had $0.8 million of unrecognized tax benefits related to tax positions taken in prior periods, $0.2 million of which would affect the Company’s effective tax rate if recognized. From October 1, 2008 through December 31, 2008, unrecognized tax benefits increased by $0.2 million due to additional accrued interest and penalties and an uncertain tax return position filed during the period. As of December 31, 2008, we had gross unrecognized tax benefits of $1.2 million.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

The Company recognizes accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the Provision for Income Taxes. The Company had less than $0.1 million accrued for interest and penalties as of December 31, 2008.

The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and various state and foreign jurisdictions. With few exceptions, all U.S. federal, state and United Kingdom tax years between 1995 and 2008 remain open to examination due to net operating loss carryforwards and credit carryforwards. Tax years 2003 and later remain open to examination in Canada and years 2004 and later remain open to examination in Germany.

Tax audits of the 2005 tax year are currently in process in the Netherlands. The Company does not expect resolution of these audits to have a material impact on our financial statements and the Company does not expect a significant increase or decrease in unrecognized tax benefits over the next 12 months.

At December 31, 2008, the Company has $72.5 million in gross deferred tax assets (DTAs) attributable principally to net operating losses (NOLs) and to a lesser extent temporary differences relating to deferred revenue. Historically, the Company maintained a 100% valuation allowance on DTAs because it previously was unable to conclude that it is more-likely-than-not that it will realize the tax benefits of these DTAs.  Based on recent operating results and the reorganization of the Company’s intellectual property into the U.S., current projections of disaggregated future taxable income has enabled the Company to conclude that it is more-likely-than-not that it will have future taxable income sufficient to realize $6.7 million of tax benefits from its deferred tax assets, which consist of that portion of net deferred tax assets attributable to net operating losses (NOLs) residing in the United Kingdom. Accordingly, the Company released (eliminated) the valuation allowance on its DTAs related to the United Kingdom, of which $9.5 million was recognized in the period ended September 30, 2008 as an offsetting reduction to goodwill (representing pre-acquisition NOLs). Beginning October 1, 2008 and through future periods, the Company expects to incur tax expense related to the United Kingdom which will result in an increase in overall expense; however, to the extent that such tax expense is offset by the utilization of NOLs, the recognition of this additional tax expense will be a non-cash item.

At December 31, 2008, the Company’s provision for income taxes was $1.7 million. Of this total, $1.3 million was related to a non-cash deferred tax expense for the recognition of taxable income in the United Kingdom. The Company also had unrecoverable withholding taxes related to sales transactions that occurred in Turkey, Poland and India. The remainder of the Company’s provision is attributable to taxes on earnings from the Company’s  foreign subsidiaries.

The remaining balance of gross deferred tax assets was generated in the U.S. With respect to U.S. generated deferred tax assets, the Company recorded a full valuation allowance as the future realization of the tax benefit is not considered by management to be more likely than not. The Company’s estimate of future taxable income considers available positive and negative evidence regarding current and future operations, including projections of income in various states and foreign jurisdictions.  The Company believes the estimate of future taxable income is reasonable; however, it is inherently uncertain, and if future operations generate taxable income greater than projected, further adjustments to reduce the valuation allowance are possible. Conversely, if the Company realizes unforeseen material losses in the future, or the ability to generate future taxable income necessary to realize a portion of the net deferred tax asset is materially reduced, additions to the valuation allowance could be recorded. At December 31 and September 30, 2008, the balance of deferred tax valuation allowance was approximately $65.9 million. 

Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the amounts of, and the benefit from, net operating losses that can be carried forward may be impaired or limited in certain circumstances. Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), as amended, a cumulative stock ownership change of more than 50% over a three-year period can cause such limitations. The Company has analyzed its historical ownership changes and removed any net operating loss carryforwards that will expire unutilized from its deferred tax balances as a result of an IRC 382 limitation. On September 30, 2008, the Company had federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $3.4 million. Due to Section 382 ownership changes under IRC Section 383, $2.1 million of the federal research tax credit carryforwards were subject to annual limitations and is expected to expire unutilized.

On September 30, 2008, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes of approximately $139.1 million and $26.4 million, respectively. The Company generated pre-acquisition net operating losses related to Prime Response. Of the total $33.4 million of pre-acquisition net operating losses generated, approximately $19.6 million of pre-acquisition net operating losses expired unutilized as a result of an IRC Section 382 study. Upon being realized, the remaining $13.8 million of pre-acquisition net operating loss carryforwards will reduce goodwill and intangibles recorded at the date of acquisition before reducing the tax provision.. Approximately $35.5 million of additional net operating loss and capital allowance carryforwards were generated in the United Kingdom, none of which will expire. Approximately $4.1 million of additional net operating loss carryforwards are related to stock option deductions which, if utilized, will be accounted for as an addition to equity rather than as a


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

reduction of the provision for income taxes. These carryforwards are available to offset future federal and state taxable income and expire in fiscal years 2011 through 2028 and 2009 through 2028, respectively. At September 30, 2008, there were approximately $1.4 million of federal research and development credits  that expire in 2025 through 2028. In addition, there are alternative minimum tax credits of approximately $0.1 million that do not expire. At September 30, 2008, there were also state credits of approximately $3.7 million of which $3.6 million do not expire.

On September 23, 2008, the state of California enacted tax legislation on the utilization of net operating losses and credit limitations.  Beginning in fiscal year 2009, any California net operating losses that the Company generates will have a 20 year carryforward period and effective for fiscal year 2012, will have a two year carryback period. In addition, for fiscal year 2009 through fiscal year 2010, the Company will be unable to utilize California net operating losses as they are being temporarily disallowed as a result of this legislation. This may give rise to tax expense for any such taxable income rising out of the disallowable 2 year period. Any disallowed California net operating losses that cannot be utilized during the disallowed period will be extended by two years. For fiscal year 2012, the carryback amount cannot exceed 50% of the net operating loss, for fiscal year 2013, the carryback cannot exceed 75% of the net operating loss, and for fiscal year 2014, the carryback cannot exceed 100% of the net operating loss.

Beginning in fiscal year 2009, California business tax credits will be limited to 50% of the Company’s tax liability. The carryover period for disallowed credit will be extended by the number of tax years that the credit was disallowed.

NOTE 12—EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS

2005 Equity Incentive Plan

As of December 31, 2008, there were approximately 1.8 million shares available for future grant and approximately 4.2 million options that are outstanding under the 2005 Equity Incentive Plan or 2005 Plan. In the quarter ended December 31, 2008, the Board amended the 2005 Plan to incorporate the following changes:

1.  
amended the 2005 Plan to increase the number of shares reserved for future issuance by 0.7 million shares. This amendment was approved by the stockholders at the 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders’ held on January 28, 2009.
2.  
granted 520,000 RSUs, equal to an equivalent number of shares of Common Stock, to executive officers and management team members. Vesting of the shares are time based with one third of the RSU’s vesting each year after the date of grant for a period of three years. In the event of certain changes in control of the Company, any unvested shares would automatically vest.

In October 2007, the Company granted 0.2 million performance-based RSUs to selected executives of the Company pursuant to the 2005 Plan. The performance-based RSUs cliff vest at the end of a two year requisite service period, constituting the Company’s fiscal years 2008 and 2009, upon achievement of specified performance criteria established by the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors. The award agreements for RSUs generally provide that vesting will be accelerated in certain events related to changes in control of the Company. Total compensation cost for these awards is based on the fair market value of the shares at the date of grant. The portion of the total compensation cost related to the performance-based awards is subject to adjustment each quarter based on management’s assessment of the likelihood of achieving the two year performance criteria. As of December 31, 2008, management believes achieving the two year performance criteria is unlikely.

2000 Nonstatutory Equity Incentive Plan

As of December 31, 2007, there were approximately 0.4 million options that are outstanding under the 2000 Nonstatutory Equity Incentive Plan.

1999 Non-Employee Directors’ Option Plan

As of December 31, 2008, there were approximately 0.2 million shares of common stock are available for future grant and 0.2 million options that are outstanding under the 1999 Non-Employee Directors’ Option Plan or Directors’ Plan. On November 19, 2008, the Board amended the Directors’ Plan such that the maximum number of shares of restricted stock that a Board member may receive in connection with the annual grant of restricted stock under the Directors’ Plan be limited to 15,000 shares. The Company expects to grant Board members restricted stock awards on January 28, 2009, at the 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders’. The amendment does not require stockholder approval.



CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Stock Option and RSA Activity
 
The following table summarizes stock option and RSA activity under our stock option plans (in thousands, except per share data):

           
Outstanding
 
   
Shares
Available
for Grant
     
Shares
     
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
 
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
   
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Closing
Price at
12/31/2008
of $2.66
 
Balance at September 30, 2008
 
3,056
     
3,662
   
$
8.19
           
Authorized
 
     
     
           
Granted
 
(1,404
)
   
884
     
2.85
           
Options exercised
 
     
(5
)
   
2.08
           
Options and awards cancelled/forfeited
 
329
     
(329
)
   
8.48
           
Authorized reduction in shares from existing plans
 
(10
)
   
     
           
Balance at December 31, 2008
 
1,971
     
4,212
   
$
7.06
 
6.58
 
$
279
 
Vested and expected to vest at December 31, 2008
         
3,644
   
$
7.02
 
6.37
 
$
245
 
Exercisable at December 31, 2008
         
2,143
   
$
7.70
 
5.76
 
$
64
 

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding and exercisable at December 31, 2008 (in thousands, except exercise prices and contractual life data):

   
Options Outstanding
 
Options Exercisable
 
Range of
Exercise Prices
 
Number
Outstanding
 
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
 
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Closing
Price at
12/31/2008
of $2.66
 
Number
Exercisable
 
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Closing
Price at
12/31/2008
of $2.66
 
$0.35 – 2.32
   
719
   
4.67
 
$
2.29
 
$
269
   
91
 
$
2.06
 
$
54
 
2.50 – 4.75
   
500
   
6.72
   
4.04
   
10
   
313
   
3.75
   
10
 
4.90 – 7.50
   
575
   
5.68
   
6.37
   
   
392
   
6.59
   
 
7.53 – 8.15
   
527
   
6.81
   
7.89
   
   
380
   
7.89
   
 
8.25 – 8.28
   
653
   
7.31
   
8.25
   
   
361
   
8.25
   
 
8.35 – 9.25
   
784
   
8.21
   
9.12
   
   
291
   
9.03
   
 
9.26 – 45.00
   
454
   
6.42
   
12.56
   
   
315
   
12.54
   
 
$0.35 – 45.00
   
4,212
   
6.58
 
$
7.06
 
$
279
   
2,143
 
$
7.70
 
$
64
 

The aggregate intrinsic value in the preceding table represents the total intrinsic value, based on the Company’s closing stock price of $2.66 as of December 31, 2008, which would have been received by the option holders had all option holders exercised their options as of that date. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during the three months ended December 31, 2008 was less than $0.1 million and $0.7 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2008, total unrecognized compensation costs related to non-vested stock options was $5.9 million, which is expected to be recognized as expense over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.3 years. As of December 31, 2007, total unrecognized compensation costs related to non-vested stock options was $7.0 million, which was expected to be recognized as expense over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.9 years.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

On February 1, 2008, the Company’s Board members were granted 71,088 RSAs for their annual service award under the Directors’ Plan. These RSAs were unvested as of December 31, 2008, and are excluded from the preceding table. The total fair value of the unvested RSAs at grant date was $0.6 million. The aggregate intrinsic value of the unvested RSAs at December 31, 2008 was $0.2 million. During the three months ended December 31, 2008, zero shares vested related to the RSAs. The weighted average fair value at grant date of the unvested RSAs was $8.44 per share as of December 31, 2008. As of December 31, 2008, total unrecognized compensation costs related to unvested RSAs was $0.1 million which is expected to be recognized as expense over a weighted average period of approximately 0.1 year. The Company had no unvested restricted stock as of December 31, 2007.

RSU Activity
 
The following table summarizes RSU activity (in thousands, except per share data):

           
Outstanding
 
           
Shares
     
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
   
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Closing
Price at
12/31/2008
of $2.66
 
Balance at September 30, 2008
         
0
               
Restricted stock units granted during the quarter ended December 31, 2008
         
520
               
Restricted stock units granted during prior periods *
         
               
Balance at December 31, 2008
         
520
     
1.90
 
$
1,383
 
Vested and expected to vest at December 31, 2008
         
520
     
1.90
 
$
1,383
 
*  The number of RSUs granted is an estimate based upon management’s assessment of the likelihood of achieving the two year performance criteria.

In the quarter ended December 31, 2008, the Company granted 0.5 million RSUs with an average fair value of $2.32 per unit, equal to an equivalent number of shares of Common Stock, to executive officers and management team members. Vesting of the shares are time based with one third of the RSU’s vesting each year after the date of grant for a period of three years. In the event of certain changes in control of the Company, any unvested shares would automatically vest. The aggregate intrinsic value in the preceding table represents the total intrinsic value, based on the Company’s closing stock price of $2.66 as of December 31, 2008. As of December 31, 2008, total unrecognized compensation costs related to unvested RSUs was $1.2 million which is expected to be recognized as expense over a weighted average period of approximately 2.9 years.

In October 2007, the Company granted 0.2 million performance-based RSUs to selected executives of the Company pursuant to the 2005 Plan. Based upon management’s assessment of the likelihood of achieving the two year performance criteria, the Company has estimated that zero out of a maximum of 0.2 million of unvested RSUs with an average fair value of $13.31 per unit will be awarded at the end of the measurement period. During the three months ended December 31, 2008, zero stock compensation expense related to the performance-based RSUs has been recognized. For the quarter ended December 31, 2007, the total unrecognized compensation costs related to unvested RSUs was $1.9 million which was expected to be recognized as expense over a weighted average period of approximately 21 months. If the maximum target of RSUs outstanding were assumed to be earned, total unrecognized compensation costs would be approximately $2.5 million which would be expected to be recognized as expense over a weighted average period of approximately 9 months.

The Company settles stock option exercises, RSAs and RSUs with newly issued common shares.

Valuation and Expense Information under SFAS 123(R)
 
On October 1, 2005, the Company adopted SFAS 123(R), which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to the Company’s employees and directors including employee stock options, RSAs, RSUs and employee stock purchases related to the Employee Stock Purchase Plan based on estimated fair values. The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense related to employee stock options, RSAs  and RSUs for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively, which was allocated as follows (in thousands):


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
                   
 
Stock-based compensation expense:
               
 
Cost of revenues
$
134
   
$
153
   
 
Sales and marketing
 
256
     
241
   
 
Research and development
 
109
     
199
   
 
General and administrative
 
466
     
582
   
 
Total stock-based compensation expense
$
965
   
$
1,175
   

The weighted-average estimated fair value of stock options granted during the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007 was $1.18 and $4.43 per share, respectively, using the Black-Scholes model with the following weighted-average assumptions:

   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
 
Expected lives in years
 
2.8
     
3.5
   
 
Risk free interest rates
 
1.6
%
   
3.4
%
 
 
Volatility
 
62
%
   
59
%
 
 
Dividend yield
 
0
%
   
0
%
 

The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the weighted-average assumptions for volatility, expected term, and risk free interest rate. With the adoption of SFAS 123(R) on October 1, 2005, the Company used the trinomial lattice valuation technique to determine the assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model. The trinomial lattice valuation technique was used to provide a better estimate of fair values and meet the fair value objectives of SFAS 123(R). The expected term of options granted is derived from historical data on employee exercises and post-vesting employment termination behavior. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury rates in effect during the corresponding period of grant. The expected volatility rate is based on the historical volatility of our stock price.
 
As stock-based compensation expense recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007 is based on awards ultimately expected to vest, it has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. SFAS 123(R) requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Our estimated forfeiture rate for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007 was based on our historical forfeiture experience.

Accuracy of Fair Value Estimates

The Company uses third party analyses to assist in developing the assumptions based on a trinomial lattice valuation technique used in the Black-Scholes model. The Company is responsible for determining the assumptions used in estimating the fair value of share-based payment awards.

This determination of fair value of share-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include, but are not limited to the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors. Because the Company’s employee stock options have certain characteristics that are significantly different from traded options, and because changes in the subjective assumptions can materially affect the estimated value, in management’s opinion, the existing valuation models may not provide an accurate measure of the fair value of the Company’s employee stock options and restricted stock awards. Although the fair value of employee stock options and restricted stock awards is determined in accordance with SFAS 123(R) and SAB 107 using an option-pricing model, that value may not be indicative of the fair value observed in a willing buyer/willing seller market transaction.


CHORDIANT SOFTWARE, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

NOTE 13—SEGMENT INFORMATION
 
Our chief operating decision maker reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis, accompanied by desegregated information about revenues by geographic regions for purposes of making operating decisions and assessing financial performance. Accordingly, the Company has concluded that the Company has one reportable segment.
 
The following table summarizes license revenue by product emphasis (in thousands):
 
   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
 
License revenue:
               
 
Enterprise solutions
$
1,544
   
$
6,214
   
 
Marketing solutions
 
2,381
     
714
   
 
Decision management solutions
 
4,016
     
1,879
   
 
Total
$
7,941
   
$
8,807
   

The following table summarizes service revenue consisting of consulting implementation and integration, consulting customization, training, PCS, and certain reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses by product emphasis (in thousands):

   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
 
Service revenue:
               
 
Enterprise solutions
$
9,662
   
$
15,209
   
 
Marketing solutions
 
2,951
     
3,118
   
 
Decision management solutions
 
2,823
     
2,000
   
 
Total
$
15,436
   
$
20,327
   

Foreign revenues are based on the country in which the customer order is generated. The following is a summary of total revenues by geographic area (in thousands):

   
Three Months Ended December 31,
 
     
2008
     
2007
   
                   
 
North America
$
8,083
   
$
15,591
   
 
Europe
 
15,294
     
13,543
   
 
Total
$
23,377
   
$
29,134
   

Included in foreign revenue results for Europe are revenue from the United Kingdom of $6.1 million for both the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007.

Property and equipment, net information is based on the physical location of the assets. The following is a summary of property and equipment by geographic area (in thousands):

     
December 31
2008
     
September 30,
2008
   
                   
 
North America
$
2,060
   
$
2,250
   
 
Europe
 
700
     
915
   
 
Total
$
2,760
   
$
3,165
   


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying Notes included in this report and the 2008 Audited Financial Statements and Notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2008 filed with the SEC. Operating results are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future periods.
 
The following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements. These statements are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about our business and our industry, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s results, levels of activity, performance or achievement to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied in or contemplated by the forward-looking statements. Words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “will,” “may,” “should,” “estimate,” “predict,” “guidance,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions, identify forward-looking statements. Our actual results and the timing of events may differ significantly from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to, those discussed under the subheading “Risk Factors” and those discussed elsewhere in this report, in our other SEC filings and under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our 2008 Form 10-K. Chordiant undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events after the date of this report.
 
Overview
 
As an enterprise software vendor, we generate substantially all of our revenues from insurance, healthcare, telecommunications, financial services and retail markets. Our customers typically fund purchases of our software and services out of their lines of business and information technology budgets. As a result, our revenues are heavily influenced by our customers’ long-term business outlook and willingness to invest in new enterprise information systems and business applications.

Our business has been adversely impacted by the recent worldwide credit market turmoil, the result of which is that customers are hesitant to make large commitments and some customers are merging.

Our operations and performance depend on our customers having adequate resources to purchase our products and services. The unprecedented turmoil in the credit markets and the global economic downturn generally will adversely impact our customers and potential customers. These economic conditions have continued to deteriorate despite government intervention globally, and may remain volatile and uncertain for the foreseeable future. Customers may alter their purchasing activities in response to a lack of credit, economic uncertainty and concern about the stability of markets in general, and these customers may reduce, delay or terminate purchases of our products and services or other sales activities that affect purchases of our products and services. If we are unable to adequately respond to changes in demand resulting from deteriorating economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.

Several of our current and prior customers have recently merged with others, been forced to raise significant levels of new capital, or received funds and/or equity infusions from regulators or governmental entities. This list of companies is extensive and includes Wachovia Corporation, AIG, Halifax Bank of Scotland, Royal Bank of Scotland, Barclays, and Lloyds. The impact of these mergers and changes in ownership on Chordiant’s near term business is uncertain. Customers who have recently reorganized, merged or face new regulations may delay or terminate their software purchasing decisions, and as an acquired or merged entity may lose the ability to make such purchasing decisions, resulting in declines in our bookings, revenues and cash flows.

For the quarter ended December 31, 2008, we recorded revenue of $23.4 million, a decrease of $5.0 million or 18% from previous quarter. We incurred a net loss of $2.7 million and ended the quarter with over $53.8 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities as compared to $87.1 million for quarter ended December 31, 2007. We generated cash from operating activities of $2.6 million.

Total revenue for the three months ended December 31, 2008 decreased $5.7 million or 20% from the three months ended December 31, 2007. The decrease in license revenue was $0.9 million as we had smaller dollar license transactions. Service revenue decreased $4.8 million from the three months ended December 31, 2007. The decrease in service revenue was primarily composed of decreases of $2.4 million in consulting revenue, $0.2 million in training revenue, $1.9 million in support and maintenance revenue and $0.3 million in expense reimbursement revenue.




Software Industry Consolidation and Possible Increased Competition

The enterprise software industry continues to undergo consolidation in sectors of the software industry in which we operate. In 2007 and 2008 IBM acquired ILOG, Cognos, DataMirror and Watchfire Corporation; Oracle completed its acquisitions of Hyperion, Moniforce and BEA Systems; Sun Microsystems acquired MySQL and SAP acquired BusinessObjects, YASU Technologies and Pilot Software. While we do not believe that ILOG, Cognos, DataMirror, Watchfire Corporation, Hyperion, Moniforce, BEA Systems, MySQL, BusinessObjects, YASU Technologies, or Pilot Software have been significant competitors of Chordiant in the past, the acquisition of these companies by IBM, Oracle, Sun Microsystems and SAP may indicate that we may face increased competition from larger and more established entities in the future.

Financial Trends
 
Backlog. Our revenues have been derived from large customer transactions. For some of these transactions, the associated professional services provided to the customer can span over a period greater than one year. If the services delivery period is over a prolonged period of time, it will cause the associated backlog to be recognized as revenue over a similar period of time. As of December 31, 2008 and 2007, we had approximately $55.6 million and $96.0 million in backlog, respectively, which we define as contractual commitments by our customers through purchase orders or contracts. Backlog at December 31, 2008 includes approximately $9.3 million relating to a large telecommunications customer commitment. The decrease in backlog is partially reflected in the decrease of deferred revenue recorded on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. For the period ended December 31, 2007 to December 31, 2008 aggregate deferred revenue balances decreased $14.0 million due to decreases of $5.1 million in short-term deferred revenue and $8.9 million in long-term deferred revenue. If the levels of backlog continue to decline, revenues in future periods may be adversely affected, and our ability to forecast future revenues would be diminished. Backlog is comprised of:

 
software license orders for which the delivered products have not been accepted by customers or have not otherwise met all of the required criteria for revenue recognition. This component includes billed amounts classified as deferred revenue;

 
contractual commitments received from customers through purchase orders or contracts that have yet to be delivered;

 
deferred revenue from customer support contracts; and
 
 
consulting service orders representing the unbilled remaining balances of consulting contracts not yet completed or delivered, plus deferred consulting revenue where we have not otherwise met all of the required criteria for revenue recognition. Consulting service orders that have expired are excluded from backlog.

Backlog is not necessarily indicative of revenues to be recognized in a specified future period. There are many factors that would impact Chordiant’s conversion of backlog as recognizable revenue, such as Chordiant’s progress in completing projects for its customers, Chordiant’s customers’ meeting anticipated schedules for customer-dependent deliverables and customers increasing the scope or duration of a contract causing license revenue to be deferred for a longer period of time.

Chordiant provides no assurances that any portion of its backlog will be recognized as revenue during any fiscal year or at all, or that its backlog will be recognized as revenues in any given period. In addition, it is possible that customers from whom we expect to derive revenue from backlog will default and as a result we may not be able to recognize expected revenue from backlog.

Implementation by Third Parties. Over time, as our products mature and system integrators become more familiar with our products, our involvement with implementations has diminished on some projects. If this trend continues to evolve, certain agreements with customers may transition from a contract accounting model (SOP 81-1) to a more traditional revenue model whereby revenues are recorded upon delivery (SOP 97-2).

Service Revenues. Service revenues as a percentage of total revenues were 66% and 70% for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. While the composition of revenue will continue to fluctuate on a quarterly basis, we expect that service revenues will represent between 55% and 70% of our total annual revenues in the foreseeable future.
 
Revenues from International Customers versus North America. For all periods presented, revenues were principally derived from customer accounts in North America and Europe. For the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, international revenues were $15.3 million and $13.5 million, or approximately 65% and 46%, respectively, of our total revenues. We believe international revenues will continue to represent a significant portion of our total revenues in future periods.
 



For the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, North America revenues were $8.1 million and $15.6 million, or approximately 35% and 54%, respectively of our total revenues. We believe North America revenues will continue to represent 40% to 60% of our total revenues in the future.

Gross Margins. Management focuses on license and service gross margin in evaluating our financial condition and operating performance. Gross margins on license revenues were 99% and 96% for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. We expect license gross margin on current products to range from 95% to 97% in the foreseeable future. The margin will fluctuate with the mix of products sold. Historically, the enterprise solution products have higher associated third party royalty expense than the marketing solution products and decision management products.
 
Gross margins on service revenues were 57% and 58% for the three months ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively. We expect that gross margins on service revenues to range between 50% and 60% in the foreseeable future.

Reductions in Workforce. In October 2008, we initiated a restructuring plan, the 2009 Restructuring, intended to align its resources and cost structure with expected future revenues. The 2009 Restructuring plan includes reductions in headcount and third party consultants across all functional areas in both North America and Europe. The 2009 Restructuring plan includes a reduction of approximately 13% of our permanent workforce. A significant portion of the positions eliminated were in North America.

As a result of the cost-cutting measures, we recorded a pre-tax cash restructuring charge in the first quarter of fiscal year 2009, of approximately $0.9 million, including $ 0.8 million for severance costs and $0.1 million for other contract termination costs. As of December 31, 2008, all payments have been made.

On May 1, 2008, we implemented a reduction of approximately 10% of its workforce. We reduced our headcount across all functions of the organization. We reallocated resources in support of growth opportunities in emerging markets as well as adding headcount in revenue generating areas such as sales and alliances. We incurred approximately $0.5 million in expenses in the third quarter of fiscal year 2008 in connection with this reduction of force. As these costs did not meet the criteria of SFAS 146 to qualify as restructuring expenses, the expenses were charged as operating expenses to the respective functional areas.

In July 2005, we undertook an approximate 10% reduction in our workforce. In connection with this action, we incurred a one-time cash expense of approximately $1.1 million in the fourth quarter ended September 30, 2005 for severance benefits. During the quarter ended March 31, 2007, we incurred an additional charge of less than $0.1 million for additional severance expense for an employee located in France. During the quarter ended December 31, 2008, we reversed the charge as we were not required to pay the severance expense to the employee.

During fiscal year 2002, we restructured several areas of the Company to reduce expenses and improve revenues. As part of this restructuring, we closed an office facility in Boston, Massachusetts and recorded an expense associated with the long-term lease which expires in January 2011. During the three months ended March 31, 2007, we completed a new sublease with a sub-lessee for the remaining term of our lease at a rate lower than that which was forecasted when the original restructuring expense was recorded in 2002. This change in estimate resulted in a $0.4 million restructuring expense for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2007. If the sub-lessee of the facility were to default on their payments to the Company, further adjustments to restructuring expense might be required.

Income Taxes. During the quarter ending December 31, 2008, we recognized $1.3 million of non-cash deferred tax expense related to taxable income in the United Kingdom. It is expected that we will recognize a total of approximately $3.0 million of non-cash deferred tax expense during fiscal year 2009. We expect the deferred tax expense to be reduced in future years.

Past Results may not be Indicative of Future Performance. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results should not be relied upon as indicative of future performance. Our prospects must be considered given the risks, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in early stages of development, particularly companies in new and rapidly evolving businesses. There can be no assurance we will be successful in addressing these risks and difficulties. Moreover, we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
 
Critical Accounting Estimates
 
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities.
 



On an on-going basis, we evaluate the estimates, including those related to our allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation of stock-based compensation, valuation of goodwill and intangible assets, valuation of deferred tax assets, restructuring expenses, contingencies, vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, of fair value in multiple element arrangements and the estimates associated with the percentage-of-completion method of accounting for certain of our revenue contracts. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recognition of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

We believe the following critical accounting judgments and estimates are used in the preparation of our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements:

 
Revenue recognition, including estimating the total estimated time required to complete sales arrangements involving significant implementation or customization essential to the functionality of our products;

 
Estimating valuation allowances and accrued liabilities, specifically the allowance for doubtful accounts, and assessment of the probability of the outcome of our current litigation;

 
Stock-based compensation expense;

 
Accounting for income taxes;

 
Valuation of long-lived and intangible assets and goodwill;
 
 
Restructuring expenses; and
 
 
Determining functional currencies for the purposes of consolidating our international operations.

Revenue Recognition. We derive revenues from licenses of our software and related services, which include assistance in implementation, customization and integration, post-contract customer support, training and consulting. The amount and timing of our revenue is difficult to predict and any shortfall in revenue or delay in recognizing revenue could cause our operating results to vary significantly from quarter to quarter and could result in operating losses. The accounting rules related to revenue recognition are complex and are affected by interpretation of the rules and an understanding of industry practices, both of which are subject to change. Consequently, the revenue recognition accounting rules require management to make significant estimates based on judgment.

Software license revenue is recognized in accordance with AICPA’s Statement of Position No. 97-2 “Software Revenue Recognition,” as amended by Statement of Position No. 98-9 “Software Revenue Recognition with Respect to Certain Arrangements”, or collectively SOP 97-2.

For arrangements with multiple elements, we recognize revenue for services and post-contract customer support based upon the fair value VSOE of the respective elements. The fair value VSOE of the services element is based upon the standard hourly rates we charge for the services when such services are sold separately. The fair value VSOE for annual post-contract customer support is generally established with the contractual future renewal rates included in the contracts, when the renewal rate is substantive and consistent with the fees when support services are sold separately. When contracts contain multiple elements and fair value VSOE exists for all undelivered elements, we account for the delivered elements, principally the license portion, based upon the “residual method” as prescribed by SOP 97-2. In multiple element transactions where VSOE is not established for an undelivered element, we recognize revenue upon the establishment of VSOE for that element or when the element is delivered.

At the time we enter into a transaction, we assess whether any services included within the arrangement related to significant implementation or customization essential to the functionality of our products. For contracts for products that do not involve significant implementation or customization essential to the product functionality, we recognize license revenues when there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, the fee is fixed or determinable, collection of the fee is probable and delivery has occurred as prescribed by SOP 97-2. For contracts that involve significant implementation or customization essential to the functionality of our products, we recognize the license and professional consulting services revenue using either the percentage-of-completion method or the completed contract method as prescribed by Statement of Position No. 81-1, “Accounting for Performance of Construction-Type and Certain Product-Type Contracts”, or SOP 81-1.



The percentage-of-completion method is applied when we have the ability to make reasonably dependable estimates of the total effort required for completion using labor hours incurred as the measure of progress towards completion. The progress toward completion is measured based on the “go-live” date. We define the “go-live” date as the date the essential product functionality has been delivered or the application enters into a production environment or the point at which no significant additional Chordiant supplied professional service resources are required. Estimates are subject to revisions as the contract progresses to completion. We account for the changes as changes in accounting estimates when the information becomes known. Information impacting estimates obtained after the balance sheet date but before the issuance of the financial statements is used to update the estimates. Provisions for estimated contract losses, if any, are recognized in the period in which the loss becomes probable and can be reasonably estimated. When we sell additional licenses related to the original licensing agreement, revenue is recognized upon delivery if the project has reached the go-live date, or if the project has not reached the go-live date, revenue is recognized under the percentage-of-completion method. We classify revenues from these arrangements as license and service revenue based upon the estimated fair value of each element using the residual method.
 
The completed contract method is applied when we are unable to obtain reasonably dependable estimates of the total effort required for completion. Under the completed contract method, all revenue and related costs of revenue are deferred and recognized upon completion.

For product co-development arrangements relating to software products in development prior to the consummation of the individual arrangements where we retain the intellectual property being developed and intend to sell the resulting products to other customers, license revenue is deferred until the delivery of the final product, provided all other requirements of SOP 97-2 are met. Expenses associated with these co-development arrangements are accounted for under SFAS 86 and are normally expensed as incurred as they are considered to be research and development costs that do not qualify for capitalization or deferral.

Revenue from subscription or term license agreements, which include software and rights to unspecified future products or maintenance, is recognized ratably over the term of the subscription period. Revenue from subscription or term license agreements, which include software, but exclude rights to unspecified future products and maintenance, is recognized upon delivery of the software if all conditions of recognizing revenue have been met including that the related agreement is non-cancelable, non-refundable and provided on an unsupported basis.

For transactions involving extended payment terms, we deem these fees not to be fixed or determinable for revenue recognition purposes and revenue is deferred until the fees become payable and due.

For arrangements with multiple elements accounted for under SOP 97-2 where we determine we can account for the elements separately and the fees are not fixed or determinable due to extended payment terms, revenue is recognized in the following manner. If the undelivered element is PCS, or other services, an amount equal to the estimated value of the services to be rendered prior to the next payment becoming due is allocated to the undelivered services. The residual of the payment is allocated to the delivered elements of the arrangement.

For arrangements with multiple elements accounted for under SOP 81-1 where we determine we can account for the elements separately and the fees are not fixed or determinable due to extended payment terms, revenue is recognized in the following manner. Amounts are first allocated to the undelivered elements included in the arrangement, as payments become due or are received, the residual is allocated to the delivered elements.

We recognize revenue for post-contract customer support ratably over the support period which ranges from one to five years.

Our training and consulting services revenues are recognized as such services are performed on an hourly or daily basis for time and material contracts. For consulting services arrangements with a fixed fee, we recognize revenue on a percentage-of-completion method.

For all sales we use either a signed license agreement or a binding purchase order where we have a master license agreement as evidence of an arrangement. Sales through our third party systems integrators are evidenced by a master agreement governing the relationship together with binding purchase orders or order forms on a transaction-by-transaction basis. Revenues from reseller arrangements are recognized on the “sell-through” method, when the reseller reports to us the sale of our software products to end-users. Our agreements with customers and resellers do not contain product return rights.

We assess collectibility based on a number of factors, including past transaction history with the customer and the credit-worthiness of the customer. We generally do not request collateral from our customers. If we determine that the collection of a fee is not probable, we recognize revenue at the time collection becomes probable, which is generally upon the receipt of cash.



Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We must make estimates of the uncollectability of our accounts receivables. We specifically analyze accounts receivable and analyze historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer credit-worthiness and